Please select from the menu above
Contraction for “Shipper’s Export Declaration.”
– A feature designed in a specially constructed vessel in both the loading and discharging ports.
– A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes.
o Vessel used for carrying cars and light trucks. Vehicles are driven on and driven off, as opposed to being loaded with cranes or other external equipment.
American Trucking Association.
A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo.
An accounting system that measures the cost and performance of specific activities performed within an organization. For example, an ABC approach might measure the cost incurred by the accounts receivable department in handling calls for billing errors, whereas the traditional accounting approach ignores the activity and measures the cost of the accounts receivable department as a percentage of revenue.
Referring to cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance.
The assumption that the carrier will cover extraordinary or other special charges without increasing the price to the shipper.
U.S. Customs’ master computer system, “Automated Commercial Systems.” The electronic system of the US Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry sectors,that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.
An extraordinary force of nature (such as a severe flood or earthquake) that experience, prescience or care cannot reasonably foresee or prevent.
A term from Latin meaning, “according to value.” For example, if a bill of lading shows a value for the cargo being carried, an Ad Valorem charge will be levied. This charge is required because the insurance liability of the carrier increases. This charge may be a levied as a percentage of the value that has been shown.
Additional charges above ocean freight.
Bank where a shipper negotiates documents or where documents are first presented, usually at country of origin. Also, often referred to as the negotiating bank.
Numerous shipments from different shippers delivered to one consignee, that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
A non-asset based firm that negotiates low shipping rates with airlines, then takes orders at a higher rate in order to make a profit using the airline’s assets to move the product.
The forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is issued only in nonnegotiable form.
The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges.
Is a clause included in marine insurance policies to cover loss and damage from external causes, such as fire, collision, pilferage, etc. but not against innate flaws in the goods, such as decay, germination, nor against faulty packaging, improper packing/ loading or loss of market, nor against war, strikes, riots and civil commotions (See Marine Insurance)
When a shipment is transported from its origin to its destination solely by water transportation.
Is an insurance provision that all loss or damage to goods is insured except that of inherent vice (self caused). (See All Risk Insurance).
A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded.
Privilege to use the rate producing the lowest charge.
The temperature of a surrounding body. The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed.
U.S. classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance.
The U.S. Customs’ “Automated Manifest System.” The electronic system allowing a manifest inventory to be transmitted to the US Customs Service data center by carrier, port authority or service center computers.
A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufacturers.
Agriculture Quarantine Inspection.
A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point.
An advice that the carrier or forwarder sends to the consignee advising of goods coming forward for delivery. Pertinent information such as bill of lading number, container number and total charges due from consignee etc., are included and sent to consignee prior to vessel arrival. This is done gratuitously by the carrier or forwarder to ensure smooth delivery but there is no obligation by the carrier or the forwarder to do so. The responsibility to monitor the transit and present himself to take timely delivery still rests with the consignee.
American Standards Committee X12 responsible for developing EDI standards for the United States.
A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading.
Cargo of irregular size that can either be containerized (packed in container) or non-containerized (without equipment associated with) during transportation. It requires prior approval on a case-by-case basis before confirmation of booking.
Maximum load permitted to be carried on each axle of a motor vehicle.
Abbreviation for “Bill of Lading.”
To obtain transport on the home run from B to A after having performed a full transport from A to B.
Abbreviation for “Bunker Adjustment Factor.” Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs. Sometimes called “Fuel Adjustment Factor” or FAF.
Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to be used in lieu of lost or misplaced original negotiable bill of lading.
A series of bars and spaces read by a scanning device for translation into a numeric or alphanumeric identification code that represents data in machine-readable or computerized form.
Conveyance used to carry loose cargo or containers in small volumes.
A term of measure referring to 42 gallons of liquid at 60°F.
Ports from which standard tariff rates apply to those normally serviced directly by members.
A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.
A point (location) used in construction of through rates between other points.
Section of vessel in which containers are held.
Abbreviation for “Beneficial Cargo Owner.” Refers to the importer of record, who physically takes possession of cargo at destination and does not act as a third party in the movement of such goods.
The width of a ship.
A switching railroad operating within a commercial area.
The process of comparing a firm’s performance against the practices of other leading companies
Vessel docking area, the place beside a pier, quay or wharf where a vessel can be loaded or unloaded.
Shipped under rate that includes cost from end of ship’s tackle at load port to end of ship’s tackle at discharge port.
A contract term meaning both parties agree to provide something for the other.
The official legal document signed by or for the captain/master, agents, owners of a vessel or the (common) carrier It is a negotiable document confirming the receipt of cargoes, and the contract for the carriage of cargoes between the shipper and the carrier. It is:
The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill, i.e, the invoiced weight.
A B/L wherein the paying customer has contracted with the carrier that shipper or consignee information is not given.
Stowing cargo destined for a specific location close together to avoid unnecessary cargo movement.
Railcars grouped in a train by destination so that segments (blocks) can be uncoupled and routed to different destinations as the train moves through various junctions. Eliminates the need to break up a train and sort individual railcars at each junction.
Wood or metal supports (Dunnage) to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting.
Abbreviation for “Bales.”
To gain access to a vessel.
A device fitted on a chassis or railcar to hold and secure the container.
Port of initial Customs entry of a vessel to any country. Also known as First Port of Call.
Freight moving under a bond to U.S. Customs or to the Internal Revenue Service, and to be delivered only under stated conditions.
A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
A secure building or area, approved by customs, where cargo, for which export clearance has been performed, is stored. Goods are considered foreign and must go out for export. In some countries, a bonded warehouse is defined as a warehouse with customs official’s onsite. In others, it is a warehouse in which customs inspect cargo prior to authorizing export clearance. Ensure the local definition is established. In some countries, some manufacturers are also granted a license to operate a bonded warehouse in which they can store manufactured products in anticipation of export and hence suspend payment of local taxes (e.g. on cigarettes).
A secure building or area, approved by customs, where cargo, for which export clearance has been performed, is stored.
Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation.
A reference number for bookings registered with a carrier. It should be unique without duplication for a three-year period.
Structural members on the longitudinal sides of the base of the container.
A type of air circulation in a temperature control container. Air is pulled by a fan from the top of the container, passed through the evaporator coil for cooling, and then forced through the space under the load and up through the cargo. This type of airflow provides even temperatures.
The front of a vessel.
Common term for an ocean-going freight container.
A closed rail freight car.
An inland location where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and then moved to a coastal port for loading.
A port where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and stuffed into containers but then moved to another coastal port to be waded on a vessel.
The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. -Any void or empty space in a vessel or container not occupied by cargo.
Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract.
Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
A vessel carrying dry, liquid, grain, not packaged, bundled or bottled cargo, and is loaded without marks and number or count.
A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried.
Surcharge assessed by carrier which is applied to freight rates to supplement an unexpected rise in fuel costs.
Surcharge assessed by carrier which is applied to freight rates to supplement an unexpected rise in fuel costs. (Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF.)
A Maritime term referring to Fuel used aboard the ship. Coal stowage areas aboard a vessel in the past were in bins or bunkers.
Cost and Freight. -Is a quoted price includes cost of goods and freight.Seller quotes price including the cost of goods and all transportation charges to the named pointof destination.In July, 1990 the International Chamber of Commerce replaced C&F with CFR.
Is a quoted price includes cost of goods and insurance.
An atmosphere in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations are regulated, as well as temperature and humidity.
Water transportation term applicable to shipments between ports of a nation; commonly refers to coast-wise or inter-coastal navigation or trade. Many nations, including the United States, have cabotage laws which require national flag vessels to provide domestic inter-port service.
A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company.
A barge equipped with tracks on which up to about 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways.
Use of individual carrier/rail equipment through a central agency for the benefit of carriers and shippers.
Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes.
Freight loaded into a ship.
Doors in a warehouse where vehicles back up to load/unload cargo.
Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub-item in the applicable tariff.
Cargo reserved by a Nation’s laws for transportation only on vessels registered in that Nation. Typically the cargo is moving due to a direct or indirect support or activity of the Government.
Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as cargo measurement of 40 cubic feet (1.12 meters) or cubic meters (35.3 cubic feet.)
A rate applicable to a carload of goods.
A Customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for crossing some international borders.
Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
A release order used to advise customs of the details of the shipment, its ownership, port of lading, etc. By means of this document the carrier certifies that the firm or individual named in the certificate is the owner or consignee of the cargo. Some Customs form used in lieu of a bill of lading.
The containers used for the transportation of cargoes belonging to the property of the carriers.
Usually refers to intra_city hauling on drays or trucks.
Is an association of several independent national or international business organizations that regulates competition by controlling the prices, the production, or the marketing of a product or an industry.
Customs form permitting in-bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Usually in motor carrier’s possession while draying cargo.
Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house.
A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order.
A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.
Abbreviation for “Cubic Meter.” 1 cubic metre = 35,314 cubic feet
Connecting Carrier Agreement. An Agreement of freight rates for connections between feeder ports and the ports of call of vessels.
Canadian Government Customs Authority.
Abbreviation for “Consumption Entry.” The process of declaring the importation of foreign made goods for use in the United States.
Container slot where container fits into place on vessel. Containers to be stowed in a vertical line with each container supporting the one above it.
The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo.
A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce. Document certifying the country of origin of goods which is normally issued or signed by the relevant Government Department of the exporting country, or Chamber of Commerce or Embassy.
Is a Customs Examination Station
Abbreviation for “Container Freight Station.” A shipping dock where cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers. Generally, this involves less than container load shipments, although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated. Container reloading from/to rail or motor carrier equipment is a typical activity.
The term CFS/CY means cargo delivered break-bulk to Carrier’s CFS to be packed by Carrier into containers and accepted by consignee at Carrier’s CY and unpacked by the consignee off Carrier’s premises, all at consignee’s risk and expense.
A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (charterer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement such as duration of agreement, freight rate and ports involved in the trip.
A wheeled flat-bed constructed to accommodate containers moved over the road. Also termed as “Trailers”.
A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways.
Abbreviation for “Cost and Insurance.” A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.
Price includes commission as well as CIF.
Abbreviation for “Cost, Insurance, Freight and Exchange.”
Abbreviation for “Cost, Insurance, Freight, Collection and Interest.”
Cost, Insurance, Freight, Interest and Exchange.
Abbreviation for “Completely Knocked Down.” Parts and subassemblies being transported to an assembly plant.
Abbreviation for “Carload” and “Container-load”.
A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its alleged negligence.
A publication, such as Uniform Freight Classification (railroad) or the National Motor Freight Classification (motor carrier), that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules.
The designation provided in a classification by which a class rate is determined.
A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains.
Is a bill of lading which has exemptions to the receipt of merchandise in “apparent good order” noted.
An anti trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful.
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in “apparent good order and condition,” without damage or other irregularities. If no notation or exception is made, the B/L is assumed to be “cleaned.”
A clause inserted in the bill of lading by some shipping/transportation companies, stating that they have not noted or are not familiar with any irregularities or discrepancies in the packing or in the general condition of any part of the goods or its description.
The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination.
The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use Limits bridges, tunnels, etc.
A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place.
Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit.
A document prepared to show all details of cargoes loaded in a container, e.g. weight (individual and total), measurement, markings, shippers, consignees, the origin and destination of goods, and location of cargo within the container. A Container Load Plan is either prepared by the cargo consolidator or the shipper which ships its cargoes on FCL terms.
Abbreviation for “Cubic Meter” (capital letters).
Abbreviation for “centimeter.”
Water transportation along the coast.
Abbreviation for the Railway Service “Container On Flat Car.”
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. U.S. federal codification passed in 1936 which standardizes carrier’s liability under carrier’s bill of lading. U.S. enactment of The Hague Rules.
A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise.
A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instructions concerning processing for payment or acceptance.
A firm that acts as an export sales agent for more than one noncompeting manufacturer.
A rate made up of two or more factors, separately published.
Provides a combined transport by at least two different modes of transportation from a place from which the goods are taken to a place designated for delivery.
A document produced by the shipper/seller of goods which contains an accurate description of the merchandise and the country of origin. All items are itemised and with actual price.
A specification of goods/product types, e.g. toys, electronics or welding machinery.
A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles.
A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates.
Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with reference to the laws of England and the United States.
Tariff published by or for the account of two or more transportation lines as issuing carriers.
A letter of guarantee from a company indemnifying the carrier of responsibility associated with the release of goods in lieu of a bill of lading.
Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package.
A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
The Bank that adds its confirmation to another Bank’s (the issuing Bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the letter of credit.
A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers.
A person or company to whom commodities are shipped.
A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge.
A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper, or a seller.
Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers, usually shipped by a firm called a consolidator. The consolidator takes advantage of lower FCL rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.
Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Container load shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees.
A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.
A group of carriers pooling resources, normally container vessels, in a trade lane to maximize their resources efficiently.
A program whereby the U.S. government attempted to offset the higher shipbuilding cost in the U.S. by paying up to 50% of the difference between cost of U.S. and non U.S. construction. The difference went to the U.S. shipyard. It is unfunded since 1982.
A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interests of her or his country and its nationals.
A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment.
A document, certified by a consular official, is required by some countries to describe a shipment. Used by Customs of the foreign country, to verify the value, quantity and nature of the cargo.
An official signature or seal affixed to certain documents by the consul of the country of destination.
The process of declaring the importation of foreign-made goods into the United States for use in the United States.
Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo.
Location, other than a container yard, maintained by or on behalf of an ocean carrier at which shippers or consignees may pick up or drop off empty equipment. No loaded containers may be received at CDs and such locations may not be owned or controlled by a shipper or his agent.
A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight.
Document showing contents and loading sequence of a container.
The unique identification of a container.
An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. A common supply of containers available to the shipper as required.
A number embossed on high-security seals for closing up containers which will serve identification purposes.
The length of a container i.e. 20′, 40′ and 45′ (feet).
An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed.
Area adjacent to the vessel berth where containers are delivered to and received from the vessel or inland carrier. Commonly referred to as CY.
Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment.
Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes.
An ocean vessel specifically designed to carry ocean cargo containers. It is fitted with vertical cells for maximum capacity.
Cargo that is prohibited.
A legally binding agreement between two or more persons/organizations to carry out reciprocal obligations or value.
Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.
Sophisticated, computer controlled systems that manage the mixtures of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey reducing decay.
Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures. Containers are lifted and secured in a stack using the castings at the ends.
A Bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank.
Cost of goods, marine insurance and all transportation (freight) charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery by the seller.
An additional duty imposed to offset export grants, bounties or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the government of that country for the purpose of promoting export.
Transverse members fitted to the bottom side rails of a container, which support the floor.
An abbreviation for “Cubic.” A unit of volume measurement.
When a container or vessel has reached its volumetric capacity before its permitted weight limit.
1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long.
A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments.
Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and export revenues.
A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty-free merchandise.
The process of declaring and clearing cargoes through customs.
A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice.
A phrase often included in charter parties and freight contracts referring to local rules and practices which may impact upon the costs borne by the various parties.
Last possible time when containers/cargoes may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled ship or designated point.
Abbreviation for Container Yard.
The term CY/CFS means containers packed by shipper of carrier’s premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier’s CY, all at shipper’s risk and expense and unpacked by Carrier at the destination port CFS.
The term CY/CY means containers packed by shipper off Carrier’s premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier’s CY and accepted by consignee at Carrier’s CY and unpacked by consignee off Carrier’s premises, all at the risk and expense of cargo.
Abbreviation for “Doing Business As.” A legal term for conducting business under a registered name.
Department of Transportation.
Abbreviation for “Dangerous and Hazardous” cargo.
The term used by I.M.C.O. for hazardous materials which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property while being transported.
Abbreviation for “Destination Delivery Charge.” A charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. This charge is considered accessorial and is added to the base ocean freight. This charge covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container within the terminal and gate fees at the terminal operation. The term is more commonly used in the U.S.A. trade.
Delivery Duty Paid. In DDP, shipper clears the goods for export and is responsible for making them available to the buyer at the named place of destination, cleared for import, paid duty and tax For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org
Delivery Duty Unpaid. In DDU, shipper clears the goods for export and is responsible for making them available to the buyer at the named place of destination, not cleared for import.For more information, see: ww.iccwbo.org
Is freight charges paid by the charterer of vessel for the contracted space, which is left partially unoccupied.
Space in a car, truck, vessel, etc., that is not utilized.
One leg of a move without a paying cargo load. Usually refers to repositioning an empty piece of equipment.
The number of tons of 2,240 pounds that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces “light” and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the “load line.”
A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 40 cubic feet.
Place where loose or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.
An unit train operated by various railroads for exclusive usage.
The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.
Another name for supply chain, with emphasis on the customer or party controlling demand.
A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delay in removing carrier’s equipment from terminal facilities beyond the allowed free time. The free time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff. – See also Detention and Per Diem.
The weight of cargo per cubic foot or other unit.
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.
The place where the carrier or the forwarder actually turns over the cargo or container to consignee or his agent. It may also be termed “Final Destination”.
Costs incurred when a shipper/consignee or his/her agent removes a container from the carrier’s origin/destination CY to the shipper/consignee’s place of business, and does not return the loaded/empty container to the CY or to another location designated by the carrier within the permitted free-time as stipulated in the applicable tariff.
The removal of cargo from a container. Also known as un-stuffing, unloading or stripping.
An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.
When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L/C’s which have discrepancies. They will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller and await further instructions.
The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water.
A change made in the route of a shipment in transit. (see Reconsignment)
Fee for diverting cargo from original intended destination port to a new location.
The route of a shipment changed in transit from that shown on the original billing. Used interchangeably with recon sign.
Carriers’ practice of dividing revenue received from through rates where joint hauls are involved. This is usually according to agreed formulae.
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.
Present a rate proposal to a conference meeting for adoption as a conference group rate.
Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft.
An indication on a draft that the documents attached are to be released to the drawee only on payment.
A set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is disconnected.
Within your own country.
Through transportation of a container and its cargoes from consignor’s premises to consignee’s premises. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.
Rail or train capable of carrying two 40′ containers, one on top of the other.
A second tier of cargo placed on top of the first tier.
An order issued by a seller against a purchaser; directs payment, usually through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank.
A draft to which no documents are attached.
A draft that matures on a fixed date, regardless of the time of acceptance.
A time draft under a letter of credit that has been accepted and purchased by a bank at a discount.
A draft payable on demand upon presentation.
A draft that matures at a fixed or determinable time after presentation or acceptance.
A partial refund of an import fee. Refund usually results because goods are re-exported from the country that collected the fee.
The individual or firm that issues a draft and thus stands to receive payment.
A truck or other equipment designed to haul heavy loads.
Inland transportation from vendors to the port of shipment, and from discharge port to the point of stripping the ocean container. Drayage is hence undertaken for CY and CFS cargo. Same as Cartage
Abbreviation for “Destination Rail Freight Station.” Same as CFS at destination, except a DRFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment.
Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control.
Used to lay up vessels for repair.
A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform.
The acronym meaning “double stack train” service, which is the transport rail between two points of a trainload of containers with two containers, one on top of the other, per chassis.
Delay in Startup Insurance is a policy to protect the seller of a construction project from penalties if the project is not completed on time. See “Liquidated Damages.”
Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country.
Lumber or other material used to brace materials in carrier’s equipment or containers. Material used around cargo to prevent breakage or shifting, normally provided by shipper. Its weight is included in the rating.
It is expressed in terms of number of days that a container changed from one status to another, e.g., from inbound load to empty available to outbound load. The shorter the dwell time, the more efficient the container utilization will be.
Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau.
Income after a company’s taxes and all other expenses have been paid. Also called profit or net income.
An angle piece fitted over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and other packages to prevent the pressure from metal bands or other types from cutting into the package.
An approved, published and maintained formal description of how to structure the data required to perform a specific business function in such a way as to allow for the transfer and handling of this data by electronic means.
International data interchange standards sponsored by the United Nations. See UN/EDIFACT.
A consumer-driven system of replenishment in which high-quality products and accurate information flow through a paperless (EDI) system between all distribution points from the manufacturing line to the retail checkout counter.
Equipment Interchange Receipt.A document used to receive or deliver a full or empty container/chassis at any terminal or inland container pool/depot.
An act of Congress (1903) prohibiting rebates, concession, mis-billing, etc. and providing specific penalties for such violations.
Order to restrict the hauling of freight.
The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation.
A container yard used for the storage of empty containers.
Contraction for Empty Repositioning. The movement of empty containers.
Along the route of movement.
A legal signature usually placed on the reverse of a draft; signifies transfer of rights from the holder to another party.
Customs documents required to clear an import shipment for entry into the general commerce of a country.
A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destination shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication.
Estimated Time of Departure.
A gas produced by many fruits and vegetables that accelerates the ripening and aging processes.
When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin indicated.
Exchange bill of lading.
Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded aboard a vessel. They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading.
The ratio of prices at which the currencies of nations are exchanged at a particular time.
Abbreviation for Export-Import Bank of the United States. An independent U.S. Government Agency which facilitates exports of U.S. goods by providing loan guarantees and insurance for repayment of bank-provided export credit.
Issued in connection with documents such as letters of credit, tariffs etc. to advise that stated provisions will expire at a certain time.
Shipment of goods to a foreign country.
A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country.
A government document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
A rate published on traffic moving from an interior point to a port for transshipment to a foreign country.
Additional vessel brought into schedule to cope with exceptionally strong market conditions.
Ex works. An INCOTERMS term of sale in which the buyer receives the cargo directly from the factory and thereafter arranges shipment, insurance and other related services themselves. Also known as “F.C.A.” For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org
Food and Drug Administration.
“F.O.B. Origin” means that title and risk pass to the buyer at the moment of the seller’s delivery to the carrier. The parties may agree to have title and risk pass at a different time or to allocate freight charges by a written agreement.
“F.O.B. Destination” changes the location where title and risk pass. Under this arrangement, title and risk remain with the seller until they have delivered the freight to the delivery location specified in the contract.
See “Free of Particular Average.”
A factor is an agent who will, at a discount (usually five to 8% of the gross), buy receivables.
Fuel Adjustment Factor. An ancillary charge on ocean freight shipments to account for fluctuations in fuel costs.
Abbreviation for “Freight All Kinds.” Usually refers to full container loads of mixed shipments. Usually refers to consolidated cargo.
Misrepresenting freight or weight on shipping documents.
Abbreviation for “Free Alongside Ship.” A basis of pricing meaning the price of goods alongside a transport vessel at a specified location. The buyer is responsible for loading the goods onto the transport vessel and paying all the cost of shipping beyond that location. For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org
A joint Canada/US border security agreement, of which C-TPAT and PIP are the main initiatives.
Full Berth Terms. Indicates that the cost of loading and discharge is included in the steamship rate quoted. Ship owner pays these.
Free Carrier For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org
Abbreviation for “Full Container Load.”It is an arrangement whereby the shipper packs cargoes into a container provided by the carrieror the forwarder before delivering to the container terminal.
A non-negotiable document issued by a forwarder which will satisfy the legal requirements of a letter of credit. Since a forwarder is not an NVOCC it cannot issue actual bills of lading. The FCR is legally binding upon the forwarder and is an industry standard.
Abbreviation for “Free Discharge.”
Transportation conveyance utilized to relay cargo from the mother vessel to ultimate destination or from first receipt port to mother vessel.
Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for a long-haul ocean voyage.
A vessel employed in normally short-sea routes to fetch or carry cargoes and containers to and from ocean-going vessels from the principle port hubs in a region to the minor ports.
Abbreviation for “Forty-Foot Equivalent Units.” The standard measurement unit of containerized cargo. Refers to container size standard of forty feet. Two twenty-foot containers or TEU’s equal one FEU.
International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.
Free In Free Out.
The semi-circular steel coupling device mounted on a tractor which engages and locks with a chassis semi-trailer.
The place where the carrier or the forwarder actually turns over the container or cargo to the consignee of its agent. It is the end of liability of carriers or forwarders.
Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer/shipper.Free In and Out. It is a term used in ship-chartering whereby the owner of the ship is notresponsible for any charges incurred in the ports of loading or unloading.
A capacity measurement equal to one-fourth of a barrel.
Costs that do not vary with the level of activity. Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried. Terminal leases, rent and property taxes are fixed costs.
A temperature that when certain inflammable cargo reaches will trigger spontaneous ignition. It is an IMCO standard information requirement for dangerous goods.
Truck designed to haul heavy or oversized non-containerisable cargo.
A rail car without a roof and walls.
A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top.
Heavy duty cranes that are able to handle exceptionally heavy cargo if unable to use conventional gantry cranes.
Federal Maritime Commission. The U.S. Governmental regulatory body responsible for administering maritime affairs including the tariff system, Freight Forwarder Licensing, enforcing the conditions of the Shipping Act and approving conference or other carrier agreements.
See Free On Board. See also Terms of Sale, FOB.
Abbreviation for “Free on Rail.”
Persons or firms engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers for compensation. Classified into two general categories, specialised and general freight motor carriers.
A state of emergency or condition that permits a company to depart from the strict terms of contract because of an event or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled, i.e: beyond human control (French superior or irresistible force) such as earthquakes, floods or war. Compare: ACT OF GOD, INEVITABLE ACCIDENT, VIS MAJOR.
The direction on a vessel parallel to the center line.
Government restrictions on the use of currency, bank drafts or other payment types to regulate imports, exports and trade balances.
Under U.S. tax law, a corporation created to obtain tax exemption on part of the earnings of U.S. products in foreign markets. Must be set-up as a foreign corporation with an office outside the USA.
A free port in a country divorced from Customs authority but under government control. Merchandise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations.
A machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids.
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received. Compare Clean Bill of Lading.
A pallet designed so that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from all four sides. See Fork lift.
The seller must deliver the goods to a pier and place them within reach of the ship’s loading equipment. See Terms of Sale.
An astray shipment (a lost shipment that is found) sent to its proper destination without additional charge.
Cost of loading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
A marine insurance term meaning that the assurer will not allow payment for partial loss or damage to cargo shipments except in certain circumstances, such as stranding, sinking, collision or fire.
Shipped under a rate that includes costs of delivery to and the loading onto a carrier at a specified point.
Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
A restricted area at a seaport for the handling of duty-exempted import goods. Also called a Foreign Trade Zone.
The U.S. government does not issue certificates of free sale. However, the Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, will issue, upon request, a letter of comment to the U.S. manufacturers whose products are subject to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act or other acts administered by the agency. The letter can take the place of the certificate.
That amount of time that a carrier’s equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. (See Storage, Demurrage or Per Diem.)
A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties.
Refers to either the:
A document issued by the carrier based on the bill of lading and other information; used to account for a shipment operationally, statistically, and financially. An Invoice.
Responsible for collections of freight/charges/release of cargo/release of bills of ladings.
The freight and charges agreed by the shipper and carrier is payable at destination.
Freight and charges are required to be paid by a shipper before an original bill of lading is released.
Evidence that the freight charges for the cargo have been paid. If in writing, it may be presented at the pier to obtain release of the cargo. Normally, once the freight is paid, freight releases are arranged without additional documentation. Also known as freight bill receipt.
The fresh air exchange system in a reefer container which removes harmful gases from reefers carrying sensitive perishable commodities. The fresh air vent is located on the reefer machinery at the end of the container. The fresh air vent is adjustable to accommodate a variety of cargo and chilled load operating conditions. The fresh air vent should be tightly closed when carrying frozen cargo.
A ship fitted for container carriage in all available space. The ship is fitted with vertical cells for container placement both below and above deck. No provisions are available for cargo other than containers.
The trailer is loaded as full as the nature of the freight and other conditions permit, so that no more of the same type of freight can be loaded, consistent with safety and damage precautions.
Treatment of cargoes with a pesticide-active ingredient that is a gas under treatment conditions. It is a process required by many importing countries for the importation of wood and related products.
The currency of the primary economic environment of and entity. For ODFL, this is US Dollars.
Port crane used to load and discharge containers from vessels, can be positioned by moving along rail tracks.
Method of storing apparel in containers for garments that should not be folded.
Industry-related: A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines.Computers: Computers, like bridges and routers, are a method of connecting two local areanetworks. Gateways translate between two LAN protocols. Gateways: are protocol-specific and can only translate between two types of networks, notdirectly to PCs.
Abbreviation for “General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.” A multilateral treaty to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariffconcessions. The World Trade Organization (WTO) superseded GATT in 1994.An international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practice for fair trading ininternational commerce.
Abbreviation for “Government Bill of Lading.”
Abbreviation for “General Department Store Merchandise.” A classification of commodities that includes goods generally shipped by mass-merchandise companies. This commodity structure occurs only in service contracts.
When U.S. Customs orders shipments without entries to be kept in their custody in a bonded warehouse.
In the Far East, a warehouse where goods are stored and delivered.
The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container leading to the connection to tractor.
Abbreviation for “General Rate Increase.” Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate increase implemented by conference members and applied to base rates.
Applies to vessels, not to cargo. Determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel’s closed-in spaces. A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.
Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo and tractor for highway transport.
A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment.
Abbreviation for “Gross Vehicle Weight.” The combined total weight of a vehicle and its container, inclusive of prime mover.
1968 Revision of Hague Rules.
In March 1978 an international conference in Hamburg adopted a new set of rules (The Hamburg Rules), which radically alter the liability which shipowners have to bear for loss or damage to goods in the courts of those nations where the rules apply.
The cost involved in transferring, preparing and otherwise contracting inventory.
Specialized container equipped with hanger beams for the purpose of stowing garments on hangers.
An officer who attends to the berthing, etc., of ships in a harbor.
A cargo description, which is a contradiction of terms. A chemical is a substance and whether it isharmless or not, depends on the context in which the substance appears or is used.Maersk Line does not accept harmless chemicals as a valid cargo description on the shipping documents.
An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical and other purposes.
An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity-coding scheme. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Co-operations Council (CCC), an international Customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured product nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings. It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the industry (e.g., Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibers; Chapter 57, Carpets). The basic code contains four-digit headings and six-digit subheadings. Many countries add digits for Customs tariff and statistical purposes. In the United States, duty rates will be the eight-digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the ten-digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) for imports and is the basis for the ten-digit Schedule B export code.
The opening in the deck of a vessel which gives access to the cargo hold.
The participating carrier responsible for drayage of containers.
House Airwaybill /Master Airwaybill Documents required for air transportation of cargo.
An industry abbreviation for “Hazardous Material.”
Articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s tackle.
A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s tackle.
Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.
Compression of a flat or standard bale of cotton to approximately 32 pounds per cubic foot. Usually applies to cotton exported or shipped coastwise.
Marrying 2 or more portions of one shipment that originate at different geographical locations, moving under one bill of lading, from one shipper to one consignee. Authority for this service must be granted by tariff publication.
Section of vessel in which containers are stored. See also Bays.
A barge which loads material dumped into it by a dredger and discharges the cargo through the bottom.
Bill of lading issued by a forwarder or an NVOCC operator.
Cargo loaded into a container by the shipper under shipper’s supervision. When the cargo is exported, it is unloaded at the foreign pier destination.
A central location to which traffic from many cities is directed and from which traffic is fed to other areas.
The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, yards, sails, rigging, machinery and equipment.
The person with whom the ship hull, machinery apparel, and tackle is insured.
The process of connecting a moving rail car with a motionless rail car within a rail classification yard in order to make up a train. The cars move by gravity from an incline or “hump” onto the appropriate track.
Term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, ship repair, etc.
Tractor that pulls containers around the pier for positioning. Also known as a yard hustler.
International Maritime Consultative Organization. A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities, and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable. See IMO.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The regulations published by the IMO for transporting hazardous materials internationally.
Stands for “Immediate Exit.” In the U.S., Customs IE Form is used when goods are brought into the U.S. and are to be immediately re-exported without being transported within the U.S.
Institute of Freight Forwarders.
International Maritime Control Organization classification for hazardous cargo.
An entry that allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be exported from the same port without the payment of duty.
International Maritime Organization. Formally IMCO.
To receive goods from a foreign country.
A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
Usually required for items that might affect the public health, morals, animal life, vegetation, etc. Examples include foodstuffs, feedstuffs, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), medical equipment, seeds, plants and various written material (including tapes, cassettes, movies, TV tapes or TV movies). In some countries an import permit is the same as an import license.
Cargo moving under Customs control where duty has not yet been paid.
The transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container is received by a rail terminal or water port from another carrier.
In transit, or in passage. In passage from one place to another.
Allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be transported in bond to another port, where a superseding entry is filed.
A lower-than-usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper offers a greater volume than specified in the tariff. The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume.
An agreement to hold a carrier harmless with regard to a liability.
Setting rate within a conference tariff that is different from the rate(s) for the same items established by other conference members. See also I/A.
Carrier that is not a member of a shipping conference.
Any body of rate tariffs that are not part of an agreement or conference system.
Placing a port on a vessel’s itinerary because the volume of cargo offered at that port justifies the cost of routing the vessel.
An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in damage to the product without external cause (for example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously). Insurance policies may exclude inherent vice losses.
A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.
A CFS with Customs Clearance Facilities.
A certificate issued by an independent agent or firm attesting to the quality and/or quantity of the merchandise being shipped. Such a certificate is usually required in a letter of credit for commodity shipments.
Successive shipments are permitted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time.
A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor, and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.
The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.
Document which assures the consignee that insurance is provided to cover loss or damage to the cargo while in transit. -A certificate issued by an insurer to a shipper (or other party) as evidence that a shipment of merchandise is covered under a marine policy.
This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the insured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, collides, or sinks, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes partial damage or partial loss.
This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.
In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo. Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss.
A Marine insurance term to refer to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo. Particular average insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certain percentage of the insured value of the shipment, usually three to five percent, before a claim will be allowed by the company.
Carriers that have both air and ground fleets or other combinations, such as sea, rail and truck. They usually handle thousands of small parcels an hour.
Transfer of a container from one party to another.
A location where one carrier delivers freight to another carrier.
Water service between two coasts; in the U.S., this usually refers to water service between the Atlantic and Pacific or Gulf Coasts.
Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation carriers.
A point located en route between two other points.
Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes, i.e., motor, water, and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.
Moving ocean freight containers by various transportation modes. The fact that the containers are of the same size and have common handling characteristics permits them to be transferred from truck to railroad to air carrier to ocean carrier.
Freight forwarders that handle booking, paperwork and consolidation of exports.
Generally, carrying costs or holding costs are financial measurements that calculate all the costs associated with holding goods in storage. It includes inventory-in-storage, warehousing, obsolescence, deterioration, spoilage and labour costs, as well as insurance and taxes.
The cost of goods sold, divided by the average level of inventory on hand. The ratio measures how many times a company’s inventory has been sold during the year.
The speed with which products move from receiving dock to shipping dock.
Documentation supplying Customs with the type of goods, quantity, price of each type and terms of sale. The type of invoice required is determined by the shipment’s value.
A complete listing of all cargo entering the country of discharge. Required at all world ports and is the primary source of cargo control, against which duty is assessed by the receiving country.
Abbreviation for “Inland Point Intermodal.” Refers to inland points (non-ports) that can be served
by carriers on a through bill of lading. -Cargo moving via land from/to an inland point. -See also Micro Bridge.
Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller.
Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit.
The carrier issuing transportation documents or publishing a tariff.
A wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles.
A rope ladder suspended from the side of a vessel and used for boarding.
Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger.
Abbreviation for “Just In Time.” In this method of inventory control, warehousing is minimal or non-existent; the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive “just in time;” not too early nor too late.
Journal of CommerceA trade publication. Trade transportation journal.
A rate from a point located on one transportation line to a point on another transportation line which is published in a single tariff.
A rate applicable from a point on one transportation line to a point on another line, made by agreement and published in a single tariff by all transportation lines over which the rate applies.
A form of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.
Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, requiring that all shipments by water between ports in the United States (including Puerto Rico) be carried by U.S.-flag, be U.S.-built, and U.S.-crewed vessels.
The main center-line structural member, running fore and aft along the bottom of a ship, sometimes referred to as the backbone.
1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds.
A coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor.
Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re-assembled.
A unit of speed. The term “knot” means velocity in nautical miles per hour whether of a vessel or current. One nautical mile (6,076 feet or 1852 meters) per hour. In the days of sail, speed was measured by tossing overboard a log which was secured by a line. Knots were tied into the line at intervals of approximately six feet. The number of knots measured was then compared against time required to travel the distance of 1000 knots in the line.
A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.
Kilo or metric ton. 1,000 Kilos or 2,204.6 pounds.
Letter of Intent : A letter of intent or LOI is a document outlining an agreement between two or more parties before the agreement is finalized. See also in “Letter of Indemnity”.
Abbreviation for “Letter of Credit.”
Cargo, including all commodities, requiring a label according to the provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
Loaded aboard a vessel.
Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment.
Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, and then sent to an inland point in the U.S. or elsewhere by land transportation (rail or truck). See also MLB.
The total cost of a good to a buyer, including the cost of transportation.
Certificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond.
A support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed.
A maritime industry abbreviation for “Lighter Aboard Ship.” A specially constructed vessel equipped with an overhead crane for lifting specially designed barges and stowing them into cellular slots in an athwartship position.
Support for cargoes inside a container or a cargo hold to ensure that they are secured and will not be subject to rolling during the voyage from origin to destination.
It is a term used in the liner industry when extensions are being given to the shippers against the official CY or CFS Closing date and time which carriers publish to the trade.
Laydays/Cancelling (date): Range of dates within the hire contract must start.
Abbreviation for “Less than Container Load.” Common term for an amount of goods to be shipped and which do not fill an entire container.Ocean rates for LCL are commonly higher on a per-unit basis than for a full container load. Thus,consolidation of several LCL loads from different places or shippers into a full container can save on costs.
Also known as LTL or LCL.Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimumweight.
A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. Some of the specific descriptions are:
Guarantee from the shipper or consignee to indemnify carriers or forwarders for costs and/or loss, if any, in order to obtain favorable action by carriers or forwarders. It is customary practice for carries and forwarders to demand letters of indemnity from consignees for taking delivery of cargoes without surrendering bill of lading which has been delayed or is lost.
A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.
A container ship onto which containers are lifted by crane.
A vessel discharges part of its cargo at anchor into a lighter to reduce the vessel’s draft so it can then get alongside a pier.
An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel.
Refers to the carriage of cargoes by lighter and the charge assessed therefore.
Marine portion of a vessel’s route covering the greatest distance, usually across an ocean (e.g. Singapore-Los Angeles).
A vessel sailing between specified ports on a regular basis.
Freight includes the cost of loading onto and discharging from the vessel.
The penalty a seller must pay if the construction project does not meet contractual standards or deadlines.
The amount in degrees that a vessel tilts from the vertical.
1.06 liquid U.S. quarts or 33.9 fluid ounces.
An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.
Liquified Natural Gas Carrier.
Percent of loaded containers against total capacity of vessel or allocation.
The ratio of loaded miles to empty miles.
Cargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area.
Device that secures container doors at top and bottom.
1 Long Ton = 2,240 lbs.
Workers employed in the terminals or quays to load and unload ships. They are also known as “Stevedores”. Loop A particular service of any Consortium or Carrier among various ports of calls, with the objective of creating a niche in the market for the first port of discharge.
A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.
See Less than truckload.
Middlewest Motor Freight Bureau.
A carrier giving a customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (under cubing); mis-declaration of the commodity shipped to allow the assessment of a lower tariff rate; waiving published tariff charges for demurrage, CFS handling or equalization; providing specialized equipment to a shipper to the detriment of other shippers, etc.
A writ issued by a court; requires that specific things be done.
Same as cargo manifest. A document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a vessel or its agent or master, i.e.,a detailed summary of the total cargoes or containers loaded in a vessel. Used principally forcustoms purposes. It is also called summary of Bills of Lading.
Duty-free (for U. S. import) manufacturing plants located in Mexico.
Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy and various other causes but excludes losses that can be legally recovered.
Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction over.
A pointed metal spike, used to separate strands of rope in splicing.
See “Ocean Bill of lading”.
U.S. Customs’ automated program under AMS. It allows for electronic reporting of inbound (foreign) cargoes in the U.S.
Master lease is one form of a short-term lease, which refers to the leasing of the containers by carriers from those leasing companies.
Master lease leasing cost includes container rental, depot lift-on/lift-off charge, on/off hire drayage, drop-off charge and offhire repair cost, etc. Due to off-hire quota limitation, the average on-hire period is around 73 days for 20’GP, 40’GP and 102 days for 40’HQ.
An archaic practice..A receipt signed by a mate of the vessel, acknowledging receipt of cargo by the vessel. Theindividual in possession of the mate’s receipt is entitled to the bill of lading, which in due courseis issued in exchange for that receipt.
The procurement, movement and management of materials and products from acquisition through to production.
Maximum cargo that can be loaded into a container either by weight or volume.
The highest freight rate permitted by a regulatory body to apply between points.
1,000 board feet. One MBM equals 2,265 C.M.
Abbreviation for “Master Container Freight Station.” See CFS.
Freight on which transportation charges are calculated on the basis of volume measurement.
1 cubic metre. One of the alternative bases of Freight Tariff.
A container fitted with a means of forced air ventilation.
An in-house bill of lading. A duplicate copy.
See Multiple Container load Shipment.
Inland transportation performed by an inland carrier contracted by and for the account of the shipper or consignee.
39.37 inches (approximately).
2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms.
A landbridge movement in which cargo originating/destined to an inland point is railed or trucked to/from the water port for a shipment to/from a foreign country. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin to destination. Also known as I.P.I. or Through Service.
A unit equal to 5,280 feet on land. A nautical mile is 6076.115.
An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all water move (e.g., Hong Kong to New York over Seattle).
Cargo moving from/to an inland destination on one bill of lading from/to a foreign port through two U.S. ports.
A clause in a Bill of lading which specifies the least charge that the carrier will make for issuing a lading. The charge may be a definite sum or the current charge per ton for any specified quantity.
The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment.
A container load of different articles in a single consignment.
Shipment consisting of items described in and rated under two or more rate items within a tariff.
Abbreviation for “Mini Landbridge.”Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, and then sent to an inland point in the U.S.or elsewhere by land transportation (rail or truck). See also Land Bridge.
A blend of gases tailored to replace the normal atmosphere within a container.
Main ocean vessel in a liner service designated to move containers from set origin points to set destination ports/points on a regular basis.
A container frame fitted to accommodate two or more separate tanks for liquids.
Synonymous for all practical purposes with “Intermodal.”
National Committee on International Trade Documentation.
National Motor Freight Classification.
North Pacific Coast Freight Bureau.
See Net tons.
Distance of one minute of longitude at the equator, approximately 6,076.115. The metric equivalent is 1852.
Abbreviation for “Not Elsewhere Classified.”
Something that can be negotiated, transferred or assigned from one person to another in return for equivalent value by being delivered either with endorsement (as of an instrument to order) or without endorsement (as of an instrument to bearer) so that the title passes to the transferee who is not prejudiced in his rights by any defect or flaw in the title of prior parties nor by personal defenses available to prior parties among themselves provided in both cases that the transferee is a bona fide holder without notice e.g. bills of lading, bills of exchange, promissory notes, and cheques that are payable to bearer or order are negotiable instruments, as are also, in some jurisdictions, some other instruments (as bonds, some forms of stock) i.e. negotiable paper/negotiable securities. “Negotiable” used analogously for “transferable” – see also negotiability/transferability.
A document of title (such as a draft, promissory note, check, or bill of lading) transferable from one person to another in good faith for a consideration. Non-negotiable bills of lading are known as “straight consignment.” Negotiable bills are known as “order b/l’s.”
Bank where a shipper negotiates documents or where documents are first presented, usually atcountry of origin.Also, often referred to as the advising bank.
Abbreviation for “Not Elsewhere Specified.”
The weight of an empty cargo-carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached.
(0.2+0.02 log10(Vc)) Vc (4d/3D)2, for passenger ships the following formula is added: 1.25 (GT+10000)/10000 (N1+(N2/10)), where Vc is the volume of cargo holds, D is the distance between ship’s bottom and the uppermost deck, d is the draught N1 is the number of cabin passengers, and N2 is the number of deck passengers.) “Ton” is figured as an 100 cubic foot ton.
Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.
Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails. See also “Windy Booking.”
Not Otherwise Enumerated.
Abbreviation for “Not Otherwise Indexed.”
Abbreviation for “Not Otherwise Indexed By Name.”
The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System.
Third party providers who generally do not own assets, such as transportation and/or warehouse equipment.
Required by some countries for protection against the dumping of certain types of merchandise or products.
A document not made out “to order”, but being a receipt and evidence of the contract of carriage, but which is not a document of title, e.g. a waybill and, in some jurisdictions (such as the USA), a (straight) consigned bill of lading.
Notice of Readiness, or Not Otherwise Rated. It is a notice by owner to charterer, shipper, receiver or other person as required by charter party that the ship has arrived at the port or berth as the case may be and is ready to load/discharge.
Abbreviation for “Not Otherwise Specified.” or “Not Otherwise Stated.”
Front of a container or trailer – opposite the tail.
Company/person who appears on the bill of lading or waybill to be notified when the cargo arrives at destination. Could be different from the consignee, but is often the actual receiver of the goods. A notify party has no particular rights (beyond the notification) under the bill of lading or waybill.
See “Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier”.
Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, headquartered in Paris with membership consisting of the world’s developed nations.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
Origin Receiving Charge. A Terminal Handling Charge levied at ports of loading.
A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, canbe bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit. -See also Negotiable Bill of Lading.
The all-water transportation portion of a route.
See “Overland Common Points.”
Abbreviation for “Operating Differential Subsidy.” An amount of money the U.S. government paid U.S. shipping companies that qualify for this subsidy. The intent was to help offset the higher subsidy. The intent was to help ofset the higher cost of operating a U.S.-flag vessel. The ODS program is administered by the U.S. Maritime Administration and is being phased out.
A Bill of Lading in which a carrier acknowledges that cargoes have been placed on board a certain vessel. The on-board date of bills of lading is the date on which liabilities of the carrier start.
Cargo stowed on the deck of the vessel.
The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport to the place of delivery after discharge from the ocean vessel (main means of transport) at the port (place) of discharge.
The proportion of time that a transit system adheres to its published schedule times within stated tolerances.
The lease of containers that covers the outbound voyage only, after which the container is returned to the lease holder at or near destination agreed.
A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.
A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
Rates established for each individual carrier. These rates are listed in a tariff list but may differ according to carrier.
A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.
A comparison of a carrier’s operating expense with its net sales. The most general measure of operating efficiency.
The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container.
This includes the time and the process involved from the placement of the order to the receipt of the shipment. It includes the following processes: Communicating the order, order processing, transporting the shipment.
A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit.
Abbreviation for “Origin Rail Freight Station.” Same as CFS at origin except an ORFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment.
Location where shipment begins its movement.
A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier.Â See also Bill of Lading.
Customers who incorporate the exporter’s product into their own merchandise for resale under their own brand names.
Abbreviation for “Over, Short or Damaged” Usually discovered at cargo unloading.
Transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container leaves a rail or water terminal.
Cargo which exceeds the internal dimensions of the container in width, length or height.
Outward bound. Direction of vessel or cargo going out from port of loading or point/place of receipt. (Export shipments).
Destination port, other than a base port, to which rates apply but which may be subject to additional out-port arbitraries.
To hire a third-party provider to assume tasks previously performed in-house.
To charge more than the proper amount according to the published rates.
A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were established by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conjunction with western railroads so that cargo originating or destined for the American Midwest and East would be competitive with all-water rates via the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf ports. Applies to eastern Canada.
A special rate concession made by shipping lines, rail carriers and truckers serving the U.S. West Coast for export and import traffic, intended to benefit midwest shippers and importers by equalising rates to and from other coastal areas, and offering these midwest companies a comparable alternative. The steamship companies lower their rates and the inland carriers pick up the terminal charges, which consist of handling charges, wharfage charges and car loading or unloading charges. OCP rates apply to cargo shipped from or consigned to the states of: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico and all states east thereof. OCP rates in Canada apply to the provinces of: Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.
Overland Common Point rates which are generally lower than local tariff rates. They were established by the U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conjunction with railroads serving the western U.S. ports so that cargo originating or destined to the American Midwest and East would be competitive with all-water rates via the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf ports. O.C.P. rates are also applicable to eastern Canada.
Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code identifying an individual common carrier. A three letter carrier code followed by a suffix identifies the carrier’s equipment. A suffix of “U” is a container and “C” is a chassis.
Abbreviation for “Protection and Indemnity,” an insurance term.
Abbreviation for “Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee.” A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading.
A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in-bound document.
A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served.
A published rate that is never assessed because no freight moves under it.
An electronic system that allows U.S. Customs to review and pre-release shipments for import into the U.S.
An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading.
Available both at the border and inland (INPARS). An electronic system that allows CCRA to review and pre-release shipments for import into Canada.
Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permitted.”
A carrier that is a party, under concurrence, to a tariff issued by another transportation line or by a tariff’s publishing agent.
A chart that indicates the temperature reading in a reefer container.
Shippers and providers who enter into agreements designed to benefit both parties.
A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank.
A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank.
A charge, based on a fixed daily rate.
Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean transport.
Cargo subject to decay or deterioration, normally fresh food and vegetables, etc.
All logistics activities from the production line to the final user, including traffic, packaging, materials handling, warehousing, order entry, customer service, inventory control etc.
A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries; indicates that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and found free from harmful pests and plant diseases.
The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform.
A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee’s facility. See “CFS/CY”.
Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination. See “CFS/CFS”.
A mobile container-handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars.
Cargo stolen from the container, warehouse or terminal.
A person whose office or occupation is to steer ships, particularly along a coast or into and out of a harbor.
A CCRA initiative designed to enlist the cooperation of private industry in efforts to enhance border security and increase awareness of customs compliance issues.
See “Place of Receipt”.
Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier. See “Final Destination”.
Location where cargo enters the care and custody of the carrier. Same as Place of Acceptance. It is the starting port of carrier’s liability upon receipt of cargoes from shippers.
The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper.
Abbreviation for:-Port of Loading : The port at which cargoes or containers are loaded onto vessels.-Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants.
U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment.
South Europe Conference [SEAC] charge incurred when the shipper is not able to deliver cargo directly alongside the vessel. The carrier may assess its expenses in moving cargo from the shipper’s point of delivery to the vessel.
Location where imported merchandise is off loaded from the importing aircraft or vessel.
Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic.
(see P.O.D) A port where cargoes and containers destined elsewhere are actually discharged from a vessel.
Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country.
Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country.
(see P.O.L.) A port where cargoes or containers are loaded onto a vessel.
The moving of empty equipment from surplus areas to deficit areas.
Lifts temporary quarantine of a vessel; granted pratique by Health Officer.
A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination without opening the doors.
Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the carrier.
A charge paid by shippers to ship agents for services provided by the agent in Turkish and Greek ports, generally for loading activities conducted by port stevedores. It is not an actual contractual term so the obligation to pay does not depend on its inclusion in the bill of lading.
Turkey: 3% on Total Ocean Freight including all surcharges and intermodal charges.
Greece: 3% Piraeus, 5% Salonika (except on cargo originating in Bulgaria).
A Latin term meaning “For the sake of form.” When used with the title of a document, the term refers to an informal document presented inadvance of the arrival, or preparation of the required document, in order to satisfy a customs requirement.
An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.).
A Latin term meaning “In proportion.”
Single tariff item, established to move multiple commodities needed for a specified project, usually construction.
Pre-Trip Inspection. (Typically the shipping line’s inspection of reefer containers prior to release to the shipper for stuffing/loading).
A name usually given to a State body having control or regulation of public utilities.
Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account.
Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges.
A short semi-trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer.
Common grouping of orders for goods/services. Several SKU categories may be listed on one purchase order. Most customers group their orders in a particular way to facilitate distribution at the other end. For example, one purchase order for an apparel importer might encompass 2 dozen green sweaters and 2 dozen red sweaters. If those P.O.s originated from the same store, it is simple for the store to put all items under that P.O. onto the right truck.
The systematic planning, measuring and control of a combination of people, materials, metrology and machines, with the objective of producing a product that satisfies the quality and profitability of the enterprise.
One of the yellow buoys at the entrance of a harbour indicating the place where vessels must anchor for the exercise of quarantine regulations.
A document signed by the captain and the ship’s doctor before the port health officer when a ship arrives at the quarantine station. It gives the name of the ship, tonnage, number of crew, first port of voyage and date of sailing, intermediate ports called at, number of passengers for the port at which the vessel is arriving, number of transit passengers, cases of infectious diseases during voyage, deaths, nature of cargo, name of agents. The port health officer then proceeds with the medical inspection of passengers and crew. Also called “Entry Declaration”.
A charge against all vessels entering a harbour to provide for the maintenance of medical control service. Also called “Quarantine Fees”.
A yellow flag used as a sanitary signal. It is displayed by all vessels entering a harbour; also when a contagious or infectious disease exists on board or when the vessel has been placed in quarantine.
A place where vessels in quarantine are stationed when arriving from contaminated ports.
A medical control centre located in an isolated spot ashore where patients with contagious diseases from vessel in quarantine are taken. It is also used for passengers and crews of vessel arriving from suspected ports while fumigation or any other disinfection is carried out on board ship.
A pier, wharf or other structure built along a shore for landing, loading and unloading boats or ships.
A consumer-driven system of replenishment in which high-quality products and accurate information flow through a paperless (EDI) system between all distribution points from the manufacturing line to the retail checkout counter. Distributors, carriers and suppliers act as trading partners and focus on improving the total supply system.
A legal instrument used to release one person’s right, title or interest to another without providing a guarantee or warranty of title.
A wedge-shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels against movement.
The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time.
An offer to sell goods at a stated price and under stated terms.
A slang term for an open-top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover.
The amount of money an ocean carrier pays to the railroad for overland carriage.
The time that the container was discharged (grounded) from the train.
Location for loading and unloading containers at railroad terminal.
Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Originally, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as “circus loading.” Most modern rail facilities use lifting equipment to position containers onto the flatcars.
A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee’s door.
A movement of equipment from an origin rail ramp to a destination rail ramp only.
Group of carriers who discuss rates and common problems with options to file independent tariffs.
A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.).
An approach to improving business operations through reinventing, reevaluating, redesigning and redoing.
Under ICC and common law, the requirement that a rate not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit.
An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price. See also Malpractice.
Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning.
A right claim against the guarantors of a loan or draft or bill of exchange.
A label required on shipments of flammable articles.
A unit of interior capacity of ships.1 Register Ton = 100 cubic feet or 2,832 cubic metres.Also known as vessel ton.
A group of points to which rates are made the same as or in relation to rates to other points in group.
The ratio of the actual amount of water vapour in the air to the maximum it can hold at a given temperature, multiplied by 100.
A receipt signed by a customer acknowledging the delivery of cargoes.
Funds sent by one person to another as payment.
The process of moving the inventory of an item from a reserve storage location to the primary picking location or to another mode of storage in which picking is performed.
Articles handled only under certain conditions.
Cargo to be returned to original place of receipt.
An inland point provided by an all water carrier’s through bill of lading in the U.S. by first discharging the container in an East Coast port.
Reverse Logistics is a rather general term. In its broadest sense, reverse logistics stands for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. The management of these operations can be referred to as Product Recovery Management (PRM). PRM is concerned with the care of products and materials after they have been used. Some of these activities are, to some extent, similar to those occurring in the case of internal returns of defective items due to unreliable production processes. Reverse logistics refers however to all logistics activities the collection, disassembly and processing of used products, product parts and/or materials in order to ensure a sustainable (environmentally-friendly) recovery.
Request for quotation.
The electronic notification system that provides customers, customs agencies and customer’s broker representatives with proactive notification of shipment acceptance, review and release.
To re-book cargo to a later vessel.
The side-to-side (athwart ship) motion of a vessel.
Complementary equipment for terminal and over the road handling containers.
Abbreviation for “Released Value Not Exceeding.” Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods.
South African Bureau of Standards.
The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel, or the recovery of the ship herself.
A marine insurance policy clause which states the proportion of salvage charges for which underwriters are liable.
A maritime lien which exists when a ship or goods come into the possession of one who preserves them from the perils at sea. All salvage services carry with them a maritime lien on the items saved.
The value on which salvage is awarded. It generally means the value of ship and cargoes when they have been brought to a place of safety by the salvors.
An embargo imposed by a Government against another country.
See Owner Code.
The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States.
Ocean vessels constructed with heavy-duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea-Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea-Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea-Bee system is no longer used.
A metal strip and lead fastener used for locking containers, freight cars or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record and security purposes.
A record of the number, condition and marks of identification on seals made at various times and places, referring to the movement of the container between origin and destination.
The fitness of a vessel for its intended use.
Distance between two ground points within a route.
Shipper’s Export Declaration. A form, which is often, required prior to exporting a product.
A string of vessels which makes a particular voyage and serves a particular market.
The Shipping Act of 1984 of U.S.A. allows a contract between a shipper (or a shippers’ association) and an ocean common carrier, NVOCC operator or a Shipping Conference in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier, NVOCC operator or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party.
Specific temperature that a refrigerated container has been set to keep. Ideally, the set point and the actual temperature should be identical throughout the voyage.
Saturday and Holidays Excluded.
Saturday and Holidays Included.
An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.
A charge for delaying a steamer beyond a stipulated period.
One of the persons in whom the title of property of a ship or ships is vested.
A function in the operations of container vessels where containers have to be planned for loading onto vessels, taking into consideration the size and weight of containers, transshipment and discharging port rotation, types of cargoes, etc. The officer responsible for such a function is called a “Ship Planner”.
Measure time onboard ship. One bell sounds for each half hour. One bell means 12:30, two bells mean 1:00, three bells mean 1:30, and so on until 4:00 (eight bells). At 4:30 the cycle begins again with one bell.
A statement listing the particulars of all shipments loaded for a specified voyage.
All rigging, cranes, etc., utilized on a ship to load or unload cargo.
The tender of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.
A bill of lading issued only after the cargoes have actually been shipped on board the vessel, as distinguished from the Received-for-Shipment bill of lading. Also see “On- board Bill of Lading”.
Endorsement on a bill of lading confirming loading of cargoes or containers on a vessel.
The container used for cargo shipment is owned by the shipper.
Contents of containers as loaded (stuffed), stowed (packed/braced), weighed and/or counted by or for the shipper, usually a CY load.
A joint Bureau of the Census’ International Trade Administration form used for compiling U.S. exports. It is completed by a shipper and shows the value, weight, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B commodity code.
Shipper’s communication(s) to its agent and/or directly to the international water-carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery.
The document required by the carrier or freight forwarders to obtain (besides the data needed) authorization to issue and sign the air waybill in the name of the shipper.
A non-profit entity that represents the interests of a number of shippers. The main focus of shippers associations is to pool the cargo volumes of members to leverage the most favorable service contract rate levels.
The act of the U.S. Congress (1916) that created the U.S. Shipping Board to develop water transportation, operate the merchant ships owned by the government, and regulate the water carriers engaged in commerce under the flag of the United States. As of June 18, 1984, applies only to domestic offshore ocean transport.
Effective June 18, 1984, describes the law covering water transportation in the U.S. foreign trade.
Amends the Act of 1984 to provide for confidential service contracts and other items.
A special cargo handling instruction for cargoes to be delivered rightaway at shipside after discharge.
A prop or support placed against or beneath anything to prevent sinking or sagging.
Cargo volume count (at delivery destination) less than originally shipped.
Cargo missing a vessel that it was originally intended for.
Polyethylene or similar substance heat-treated and shrunk into an envelope around several units, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet.
Cargoes or containers which are not loaded on-board the intended vessel in line with the Shipping Order confirmed with the carrier.
A lift truck fitted with lifting attachments operating to one side for handling containers.
A container fitted with a rear door and a minimum of one side door.
A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.
A particular platform or location for loading or unloading at a place.
Battens, or a series of parallel runners, fitted beneath boxes or packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or other handling equipment.
Shippers load and count. All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper.
Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports.
A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel.
A vessel’s berth between two piers.
Space on board a vessel occupied by a container.
A carrier’s chartering of slots/spaces on other carrier’s vessels.
User Group for Shipping Lines and Container Terminals.SMDG develops and promotes UN/EDIFACT EDI messages for the maritime industry and is anofficial Pan European User Group recognized by the UN/EDIFACT Board.
Abbreviation for “Subject to Particular Average.” See also Particular Average.
An official form usually required by U.S. Customs if the rate of duty is based upon the value, and the value of the shipment exceeds USD 500. This document is usually prepared by the foreign exporter or his forwarder and is used by customs in determining the value of the shipment. The exporter or his agent must attest to the authenticity of the data furnished.
Rate established for a specified commodity for a specific period of time.
An articulated five-platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40-foot containers or combinations of 40-and 20-foot containers.
Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.
A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings.
1 Short Ton = 2 000 lbs.
The force that holds a vessel upright or returns it to upright if keeled over. Weight in the lower hold increases stability. A vessel is stiff if it has high stability, tender if it has low stability.
An articulated five-platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40-foot equivalent units (FEU’s).
A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi-platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well-type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No chassis accompany containers.
A standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services.
A standard numeric code developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade, based on a hierarchy.
The right side of a ship when facing the bow.
A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.
Abbreviation for Said To Contain.
A standard clause used to protect carrier, NVOCC operators or forwarders when cargoes are stuffed into the container by shippers, their agents or other third parties. See also Shipper’s Load and Count.
Abbreviation for “Standard Transportation Commodity Code.”
A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.
An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or damages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not available.
The end of a vessel. Opposite of bow.
The end of a vessel. Opposite of bow.
Smallest unit grouping for goods, normally indicating a single retail item. Usually, several SKUs will be under one purchase order.
Charge for goods held in storage facilities (warehouses) under a fixed agreement for periods of time, and which is not included in other arrangement.
Delivery of goods to consignee’s place of business or warehouse by motor vehicle. Refers to a complete package of delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final consumption point, whether that be a retail, wholesale or other final distribution facility.
A marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds.
Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.
An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikers, locked-out workmen, persons participation in labor disturbances, and riots of various kinds. The ordinary marine insurance policy does not cover this risk; coverage against it can be added only by endorsement.
Physical loading of goods into the (carrier’s) container.
Said to weigh.
To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same position as the payee with regard to any rights against others.
A wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities.
Cooled or warmed air leaving the evaporator delivered to the interior of the container. Supply air is sometimes called delivery-air.
The management and control of all materials and information in the logistics process from acquisition of raw materials to delivery to end-user.
An extra or additional charge above ocean freight. See also Add-Ons.
The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997.
An additional extra tax.
Often called “the trader’s second set” and intended to replace the first set of bills of lading issued. Usually used where a seller/trader wishes to keep the name of his supplier, named as the shipper, secret from the ultimate buyer of goods. Due care and consideration must be exercised when issuing such bills of lading because of inherent exposure to fraud/conversion of factual data.
Time Volume Agreement. A contract between a carrier and shipper specifying the movement of a number of containers over time.
Interior floor in a reefer, so named because of the longitudinal T-shaped rails which support the cargo and form a plenum for air flow beneath the cargo.
Abbreviation for “Transportation and Exportation.” Customs form used to control cargo movement from port of entry to port of exit, meaning that the cargo is moving from one country, through the United States, to another country.
Rear of a container or trailer-opposite the front or nose.
List of cargo, incoming and outgoing, checked by Tally clerk on dock.
A specially constructed container for transporting liquids and gases in bulk.
To Be Nominated. (When the name of a ship is still unknown.)
Used for sending messages to outside companies. Messages are transmitted via Western Union, ITT and RCA. Being replaced by fax and internet.
A device to record temperature in a container while cargo is en route.
The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars or containers for loading or unloading.
Time and date for payment of a draft.
An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.
A charge made for a service performed in a carrier’s terminal area.
(THC) A charge of carriers for recovering the costs of handling FCLs at container terminals at origin or destination.
A charge assessed by the terminal for cargoes being delivered for export.
The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. They are shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods. Following, are the thirteen terms of sale in international trade as Terms of Sale reflected in the recent amendment to the International chamber of Commerce Terms of Trade (INCOTERMS), effective July 1990: exw, fca, fas, fob, cfr, cif, cpt, cip, daf, des, deq, ddu and ddp.
The charge assessed by the terminal for the positioning of containers within the terminal/yard.
Companies that can be employed (hired) to assume tasks that were previously performed inÂ¬house by the client.
A combination of transportation by sea and land (Thru Service) services to/from the point of origin to final destination.
The charge for moving a container through a container yard off or onto a ship.
A draft that matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of the draft.
“Transport International par la Route.” Road transport operating agreement among European governments and the United States for the international movement of cargo by road. Display of the TIR carnet allows sealed container loads to cross national frontiers without inspection.
A document which can be issued to ease border crossings in Europe. Customs at a European location places a seal on a container and issues the TIR Carnet. The document and seal allow the container to cross borders without inspection to the consignee’s door, where destination customs will then inspect the cargo.
Abbreviation for “Trailer Load.”
The shipper, by way of endorsement and passing of the document, allows a transfer of the rights to take delivery of the goods in the document e.g. a bill of lading.
A type of air circulation in a container. In top air units, air is drawn from the bottom of the container, filtered through the evaporator for cooling and then forced through the ducted passages along the top of the container. This type of airflow requires a special loading pattern.
Terms of Sale (i.e. FOB/CIF/FAS).
The sum of purchasing, transportation and storage costs in the movement of finished products through the post production channel.
An approach to business management that focuses on quality and typically has: a strong customer orientation, total involvement, measurement systems, systematic support and continuous improvement.
The charge made for towing a vessel.
A request on a transportation line to trace a shipment for the purpose of expediting its movement or establishing delivery. Common usage of this term has been simplified to mean any request for status of a shipment.
A carrier’s system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.
Unit of highway motive power used to pull one or more trailers/containers.
A term used to define a geographic area or specific route served by carriers.
A time or a date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawee) for payment at maturity.
Persons and property carried by transport lines.
Rate-fixing machinery operated by IATA.
The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. See Container.
A freighter vessel that does not run in any regular trade lane but takes cargo wherever the shippers desire.
An ocean carrier company operating vessels not on regular runs or schedules. They call at any port where cargo may be available.
To transfer goods from one transportation line (trade lane) to another, or from one ship to another.
A port which is employed by a carrier for transshipping its carriers from one transportation line ( trade lane ) to another.
Goods onboard which upon their arrival at a certain port are not to be discharged at that port.
A port where cargoes received are merely en route and from which they have to be transferred and dispatched to their ultimate destination by coasters, barge and so on. Also called “Transshipment Port”.
Transfer of containers from one vessel to another vessel. Synonymous with Transshipments.
List of the particulars of the shipment and a record of the documents being transmitted, together with instructions for the disposition of documents.
To move cargo from one place to another.
Allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty.
To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another.
The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. In as much as the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise is likely to cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.
Place where cargo is transferred to another carrier.
Terminal Receiving Charge Charge assessed by the terminal for cargo being delivered for export.
Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer while the bank retains title to the merchandise. The goods are usually obtained for manufacturing or sales purposes. The buyer is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sales) distinct from the remainder of the assets and to hold them ready for repossession by the bank.
In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.
A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers.
A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only.
A document required on merchandise imported into the United States.
Revised and updated version of UCP operating from January 1, 1994.
Abbreviation for “Uniform Freight Classification.”
The space not filled with liquid in a drum or tank.
Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
UNCTAD Multi Modal Transport Convention.
To charge less than the proper amount.
In marine insurance, one who subscribes his name to the policy indicating his acceptance of the liability mentioned therein, in consideration for which he receives by way of a premium.
Rules for letters of credit drawn up by the Commission on Banking Technique and Practices of the International Chamber of Commerce in consultation with the banking associations of many countries. See Terms of Payment.
The cost associated with a single unit of product; it is calculated as the total cost of producing a product or service divided by the number of units in the run or lot.
Packages loaded on a pallet, in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit.
A train of a specified number of railcars, perhaps 100, which remain as a unit for a designated destination or until a change in routing is made.
Removal of a shipment from a vessel.
United States Department of Agriculture.
The legal right of using and enjoying the profits of something belonging to another party.
Valued-Added Tax on the portion of service provided by the Mexican carrier. The invoicing party is due to collect and remit this tax.
A document issued by the U.S. government; authorizes the export of commodities for which written authorization is required by law.
Authentication of B/L and when B/L becomes effective.
A term sometimes used for stowing cargo in a container.
Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of moving cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short-term equipment leases. For business analysis, all costs are either defined as variable or fixed. For a business to break even, all fixed costs must be covered. To make a profit, all variable and fixed costs must be recovered plus some extra amount.
A sales or consumption tax which the end user pays. Typically, this is a “hidden” tax, added to the list price of the goods in question.
External supplier of merchandise.
A container designed with openings in the side and/or end walls to permit the ingress of outside air when the doors are closed.
The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship’s crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core source from which the manifest is created.
A term agreement between two or more carriers in which a number of container positions (“slots”) equal in space are reserved on particular vessels for each of the participants. The number of slots (space) on different vessels on the same route can vary by vessel type and direction but may also be expressed as each party’s capacity use of the vessels employed jointly.
Allows equipment and supplies arriving at one port to be loaded on a vessel, aircraft, etc., for its exclusive use and to be exported from the same port.
A unit of interior capacity of ships equal to 100 cubic feet or 2,832 cubic metres; register ton.
Statement of a vessel’s cargoes or containers (revenue, consignee, marks, etc.).
Namely. Used in tariffs to specify commodities.
Rate applicable in connection with a specified volume (weight) of freight.
A charter party hiring a vessel for a particular voyage in which the shipowner provides the vessel, bunkers and crew whilst the charterer supplies the cargoes.
The sector of a round trip voyage normally denoted by the direction of the sailing.
The numeric identification of a trip undertaken by a vessel on a fixed trade lane.
Abbreviation for “Weight or Measurement;” the basis for assessing freight charges. Also known as “worm.” The rate charged under W/M will be whichever produces the highest revenue between the weight of the shipment and the measure of the shipment.
Western Truck Lines.
Document used to allow cargo carriage by different flag vessels other than original destination country vessels. Also for government cargo where vessels under certain flags cannot carry the shipments.
A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage of goods/cargo.
Document that identifies goods imported when placed in a bonded warehouse. The duty is not imposed on the products while in the warehouse but will be collected when they are withdrawn for delivery or consumption.
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond to another port, where a superseding entry will be filed.
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty.
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one U.S. port to be exported from the same port exported without paying duty.
The storing of goods/cargo.
Whether Cleared Customs or Not.
A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.
Measurement ton 40 cubic ft or one cubic meter.Net ton, or short ton 2,000 lbs. ( 907.19 kg )Gross ton/long ton 2,240 lbs. ( 1016 kg )Metric ton/kilo ton 2,204.6 lbs. ( 1,000 kg )Cubic meter 35.314 cubic ft.
Also known as stack car. A drop-frame Rail flat car.
Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.
Whether In Berth or Not.
Whether in Free Pratique or Not.
A freight booking made by a skipper or freight forwarder to serve space but not actually having a specific cargo at the time the booking is made. Carriers often overbook a vessel by 10 to 20 percent in recognition that “windy booking” cargo will not actually ship.
Whether in Port or Not.
A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.
A phrase preceding the signature of a drawer or endorser of a negotiable instrument; signifies that the instrument is passed onto subsequent holders without any liability to the endorser in the event of nonpayment or non delivery.
Abbreviation for “With Particular Average.”
Weather Working Days.
Standard for inter-industry electronic interchange of business transactions.
Requiring a miniscule amount of moisture.
A classification, storage or switching area.
Revenue, not necessarily profitable, per unit of traffic.
Established the standard basis for adjusting general average and stated the rules for adjusting claims.
Year To Date.